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  • Cairo

    Cairo

    Cairo

    The captial of Egypt and the largest city in Africa, the name means "the victorious city". As the region's principal commercial, administrative, and tourist centre.
  • Alexandria

    Alexandria

    Alexandria

    Egypt's second largest city (3.5 million people), its largest seaport and the country's window onto the Mediterranean Sea. No city in Egypt has history as rich as that of Alexandria which witnessed so many historic events and legends!
  • Luxor

    Luxor

    Luxor

    Luxor hosts one third of the whole monuments and antiquities of the world. Therefore, it is considered one of the most important tourism spots in Egypt and maybe in the whole world.
  • Aswan

    Aswan

    Aswan

    Aswan is the 3rd largest city in Egypt and the biggest in Upper Egypt. Aswan was the ancient Egyptians' gateway to Africa. Today Aswan is major stop for may Nile cruise ships depart from Luxor to Aswan everyday.
  • Sharm El sheikh

    Sharm Elsheikh

    Sharm El Sheikh

    Sharm is the the jewel of Egyptian tourism industry now. The city offer some of the finest places for diving and snorkeling in the world, it offers great value for money if compared with many diving spots in the world.
  • Hurhgada

    Hurhgada

    Hurghada

    Hurghada today is a world centre for sea sports such as diving, snorkelling, sailing, windsurfing, and deep-sea fishing. The unique offshore underwater gardens are justifiably famous amongst divers

Deir El Medina

Deir El Medina is one of the interesting historical sites which are commonly missed by most tourists who get attracted by other famous ancient areas in the West Bank of Luxor like the Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Queens, and the charming temple of Hatshepsut.

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Situated in a valley at the foot of the Theban Mountain, Deir El Medina was the home of the artists, craftsmen, and workers who created, built, and ornamented the royal and private tombs of the Kings and Queens of Egypt which dazzled the whole world when they were discovered.

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Situated at a short distance away from the Valley of the Queens, to the West of the Hill of El Khokha, Deir El Medina, one of the hidden treasures of the city of Luxor is rarely visited by the common tourist.

The Name Deir El Medina

In Arabic Deir El Medina means, the monastery of the city, most probably referring to the fact that this ancient historical site was transformed into a Christian worship center during the Coptic period in Egypt, the same as the Temple of Hatshepsut; which was called El Deir El Bahry, or the Monastery of the North.

Inhabitants of Deir El Medina

The ancient Egyptian name of Deir El Medina was "ta set Maat" which means the place of reality. This town was constructed to host the workers and the artists who built the royal and private tombs in the Western Bank of Luxor.

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The workers and artists who lived in Deir El Medina were divided into two squads and each team used to work for 8 hours a day and had the right to take two days off every eight days of working.

Supervised by a headman, each squad used to consist of 15 to 30 individuals who worked in the same time on both sides of the tomb digging with the use of hammers made out of wood and bronze gravers.

As the builders start working their way into the mountain, the other workers would trim and smooth out the walls. They would add a layer of a mixture of calcareous sand, clay, and straw and then another layer of plaster mixed water.

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After the preparation of the walls is completed, the artists would begin their work drawing on the walls with red ocher and then afterwards they would make the corrections needed using black chalk.

After the drawing is done, it would be the time for the sculptures that would carve the mixture used in the first phase into bas reliefs. Then it would be the turn of the decorators who would color the bas reliefs with different paints.

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Some of these paints and colors were natural, like the ones derived from ground rocks from the mountains, while others were artificially made like the popular ancient Egyptian blue color which was manufactured by heating copper with sand and alkali.

This means that while the diggers were still working in the innermost part of the tomb, other sections of the tomb located close to the mountains were already completed and finished by other workers.

Following this approach, the ancient Egyptian builders and workers succeeded in constructing tombs, rather small, but they were able to complete a tomb only in few months time.

The Tombs of Deir El Medina

Behind the town of Deir El Medina, situated on the slopes of the mountains, the workers and artists who once lived in the town constructed their own tombs were they were buried near their greatest achievements.

These tombs, much smaller than these of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, were never less elegant. They consisted of a cult chapel with the entrance ornamented with a mud brick pyramid and a burial chamber which was decorated with charming paintings.

The Tomb of Inerkhau

Inerkhau, the headman of the lord of the two lands in the place of the truth during the reign of Ramses III and Ramses VI had his tomb constructed in the tombs of Deir El Medina which is featured with paintings illustrating passages from the Book of the Dead.

The tomb of Inerkhau was unearthed in the middle of the 19th century by the famous German archeologist; Richard Lepsuis. The German scientist removed two paintings which were inside the tomb of Amenophis and his wife and they are now on display in the Museum of Berlin.

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A vestibule which was originally rich with different paintings precedes the burial chamber. Most of the painting and the decoration works of the tomb are inspired from the Book of the Dead, the most important manuscript of the burial rituals and the underworld of ancient Egypt.

However, there are also some scenes of the daily life of Inerkhau portrayed on the west wall of the burial chamber. This painting displays the owner of the tomb; Inerkhau in some sort of a family portrait gathering with his wife and his four children.

On the back wall of the burial chamber, there is a scene of Inerkhau accompanied by his two daughters presenting offerings to Osiris and Ptah, the two most important gods of the reign of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.

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On the west walls there are also around 16 smaller scenes relate to the Book of the Dead. The scenes include the cat of Heliopolis killing the Apophis under the Ished tree, a musician playing on the harp for Inerkhau and his wife, and a scene of Inerkhau being taken to the god Osiris by the god Thoth.

The Tomb of Sennedjem

An artist who lived in the reign of Sethos I and Ramses II, the tomb of Sennedjem is among the most famous tombs in the Necropolis of Deir El Medina because the tomb was fine preserved when it was discovered to the extent that the paintings seems as they were completed only a few years ago.

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Sennedjem had the title of the servant of the place of the truth and his tomb was discovered in 1886 when the archeologists found an intact burial chamber and a large collection of funerary equipments that was transformed to be exhibited in the Egyptian Museum.

The burial chamber is fully covered with paintings that date back to the style that was spread and common during the reign of the dynasty Ramses which is based mainly on displaying the life of the deceased in the afterlife.

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On the right hand of the entrance to the burial chamber, there is a painting that shows Sennedjem and his wife before entering into the kingdom of Osiris in the afterlife which is a famous scene from the Book of the dead.

On the other hand, there is a scene of Sennedjem in his daily life and above this scene the owner of the tomb is already mummified and protected by the god Isis in the guise of a falcon.


For full list of Egypt Tombs:

Tombs of the Kings (Luxor)

The Valley of the Kings was the royal cemetery for 62 Pharaohs

Tombs of the Noblemen at Thebes (Luxor)

The Valley of The Nobles is locatThe site has rock cut tombs of

Tombs of the queens (Luxor)

The Valley of the Queens is an isolated cemetery, at the southern part of

Tombs of the Workers of Deir el-Medineh (Luxor)

Deir El Medina is one of the interesting historical sites which are commonly

Tombs of Beni Hassan Situated about 20 kilometers to the South of the city Al Minya
Tombs of San Al Hager

Tanis or San El Hagar, as it is called today, was once the capital of ancient Egypt

Other Egypt Tombs:

Tombs of Aswan

The city of Aswan during the ancient times was never the city we know of today

Mastaba tombs of the Old Kingdom (Saqqara, Giza)

The Saqqara complex is one of the most

Tombs of the Oases

The Bahariya Oasis is the northernmost oasis of Egypt. This oasis has a particular historical