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    The captial of Egypt and the largest city in Africa, the name means "the victorious city". As the region's principal commercial, administrative, and tourist centre.
  • Alexandria



    Egypt's second largest city (3.5 million people), its largest seaport and the country's window onto the Mediterranean Sea. No city in Egypt has history as rich as that of Alexandria which witnessed so many historic events and legends!
  • Luxor



    Luxor hosts one third of the whole monuments and antiquities of the world. Therefore, it is considered one of the most important tourism spots in Egypt and maybe in the whole world.
  • Aswan



    Aswan is the 3rd largest city in Egypt and the biggest in Upper Egypt. Aswan was the ancient Egyptians' gateway to Africa. Today Aswan is major stop for may Nile cruise ships depart from Luxor to Aswan everyday.
  • Sharm Elsheikh

    Sharm Elsheikh

    Sharm El Sheikh

    Sharm is the the jewel of Egyptian tourism industry now. The city offer some of the finest places for diving and snorkeling in the world, it offers great value for money if compared with many diving spots in the world.
  • Hurhgada



    Hurghada today is a world centre for sea sports such as diving, snorkelling, sailing, windsurfing, and deep-sea fishing. The unique offshore underwater gardens are justifiably famous amongst divers

Changing time of history


The ancient Egyptian civilization is considered to be one of the oldest civilizations that appeared in ancient world. It started thousands of years ago when Egypt then was larch and green country, it was full of forest and jungle, but after the first ice age the climate changed and Egypt gradually became dry, it became barren and desolate desert and as a result of that, the population of Egypt who were before food gatherers and hunters had to adopt themselves according to the new weather. Gradually because of the climate change, the population had to settle around the river and inhabit the Nile valley. By around 5,000 BC .They were organized into two separate nations, Upper and Lower Egypt.

The time  of 3100 BC, according to the classical opinionof Egyptology  was widely accepted to be the beginning of the foundation of the first royal dynasty in ancient Egyptian history. A powerful pharaoh came from the south of Egypt, his name was  Narmer. He managed to defeat the lower Egyptians and unit the two kingdoms together. It was the oldest known unification in the history of mankind. He ruled over upper and Lower Egypt and He  founded of the first dynasty, hence the beginning of the ancient Egyptian history .Scholars usually attribute this event to the year 3100 BC. There were so little evidence throughout  history to tell us about what happened during that time. We had classical sources  like ancient  Historians who told us about the event of the union between Upper and Lower Egypt, also we have some finds that are exhibited in the Egyptian Museum, which clearly shows us the union between upper & lower Egypt and as we see the union between the symbols of this south and  the North united together represented on most of them, but none of these evidence sources would mention a time of such an event or tells us about when was the first dynasty founded. Today we believe that the ancient Egyptian history has a span of 3,000 years before the birth of Christ, traditionally is believed to start at 3100 BC and finished by the 3rd century BC .

One the most important objects of the Egyptian museum is the Narmer palette, this beautiful tablet or as we call it a palette. Is considered to be the main evidence showing the union between the old kingdoms of ancient Egypt and also the foundation of the first dynasty. It is a beautiful slate palette which is considered to be the oldest known object from the dynastic age, and one of the most important masterpieces , that most of the travelers who visit Cairo Museum must see.

Great astronomers :

The ancient Egyptians  throughout their history were good observers of the stars .They identified certain constellations in the sky. One of the most  important stars for them was Sirius or the what we call today the Dog star . which they used to built up a calendar, and mark the coming flood Seems at first they used a  lunar calendar , later they changed into a calendar based on the most easily observed on regular phenomena available to them, the flooding and inundation. They divided up the year  into three seasons of 30 days months, with each season corresponding to the agricultural pattern determined by the rise and fall the Nile. The first season was the inundation in itself, the second was the period of the gross and cultivation. The third was the time of harvest. It emerged that the first flooding of the Nile which was chosen as the beginning of each New Year, was observable at the latitude of Memphis, which is considered to have been the center of united Egypt, at the same time it was the helical arising of Sirius. This phenomenon takes place according to the Julian Calendar on July 19th (or about a month earlier according to the Gregorian calendar ).it is known as the Sothic year but since the Real solar year is actually 365 days and six hours, the discrepancy of a quarter of the day per year gradually lengthened the gap between the solar calendar and the Sothic calendar. This discrepancy could only be corrected after complete cycle had elapsed through a period of 1460 years, which is now known as the" Sothic year". The synchronization of the first day of the Solar calendar  and the rising of Sirius was recorded at least once in ancient Egyptian history, for example in Ad  139. It is therefore possible due to the various points in time recorded by the ancient Egyptians, to establish precise dates within these Sothic periods, the terminal points of which can be related to 1317, 2773 and 4323 BC. The reign Imenhotep I for example  response to 1537 or 1517 be seen depending on the precise location of which the phenomena was observed on. The reign of  Senosert III  response to 1877 BC. It is believed today by most of the Egyptologists that the date of 4323 BC is unlikely to have been the first year the first Dynasty and the beginning of the union since it is believed that the outcome of the remains suggest that the civilization would not have been sufficiently developed at this period, but the year 2773 BC, on the other hand is a good candidate for the beginning of the Calendar even though, it is later than the reign of Narmer !

 So all in all, when you go back on time you will find that it has been three times when this phenomena took place in  history :

              arrow    4323  BC  

              arrow   2773  BC

              arrow    1317  BC 

The ancient Egyptian referred to the helical rising of the Dog Star with the phrase " The New Year" andthey stated  that the time of the first dynasty and the union of Egypt took place at the time of the New Year. As we mentioned before that the helical rising of Sirius takes place almost every fifteen centuries. This was  a great celestial event that was easily used to mark the time!! not only for the ancient Egyptians but also for other ancient civilizations. Since the first dynasty took place at the new year it means it did coincides with the helical rising of Sirius. In the process of putting a date for the beginning of their history and to record the time of the foundation of the first dynasty. Firstly we  had three candidate dates, three options :

The first 4323 BC which was easily rejected because orthodox Egyptologists suggested that this was very early at the dawn of time, and they believed it would be hard to accept that it started that early meanwhile the third date of 1317 BC was also rejected because it was already the time of the 19th dynasty and it would be impossible that the first dynasty started that later, and finally the second time , the middle one  2773 BC was widely accepted, although it is quite incorrect and falls into the third dynasty but to fix that they give it an extra  period of time around 200 to 300 years and suggested 3100 BC was the beginning of first dynasty and the union of upper and lower Egypt .

I believe that the ancient Egyptian history had started  at the first date that was around 4323 BC, the first helical rising of Sirius .This is actually proved by Narmer palette in which the scenes depicted, have been misunderstood and misinterpreted !!.Read below and you will know why .

Zodiac invention :

The ancient Egyptians were the first people in the world to observe and record the zodiac with its  twelve constellations. The ancient gave a great importance to the phenomenon called now" the precession of the zodiac", it is in general the movement of the stars and the cancellation in relative to the position of sun in the time of the equinox and the position of earth. Due to a very gradual wobble of the earth around its polar axis, it gradually changes its relationship to the signs of the Zodiac. Over the course of some 25, 920 years, the rising Sun gradually be precesses or moves backwards through the entire zodiacal  cycle,  this is called the" Great or the Platonic year", it simply means that for the duration of any age of the zodiac, the spring Equinox of the Sun will rise against the backdrop of one cancellation gradually moving through that sign in 2160 years. Which for the full cycle takes about 25 ,920 years, as 1° within this cycle equals 72 years. Today if you look at the sky at the  position of spring Equinox, you will see the constellation of Aquarius which means that we are now at the Aquarius age, it will be dominant in the sky for along time. For the astrologers, this means that Aquarius is having control over earth for the next 2000 years  or so and also means that Aquarius people will lead the whole world for the next 2000 years, if you go back on time then you will find that it was Pisces before which was at the beginning when Christianity appeared, and so on. By using computers, if you go back on time to look at the sky at the time of the first helical rising at the Dog  star that was at 4323 BC  you'll find out that it was, the end  age of Gemini  and  the beginning of age of Taurus.  

Narmer palette:

For a closer look at Narmer palette at the ground floor of the museum ,which is decorated at both sides with pictorial scenes that show the union and the foundation of the first dynasty you will find out that one side of it has three registers, the top register shows two heads of goddess Hathor, goddess of love, music and maternity flanking the name of the King between which reads NA3- MER. Below it the king is represented smiting one of the enemies from Lower Egypt  and depicted in front of his face, god Horus, shown in a form of a falcon which here represents the legitimate and living king, it is simply a symbolic representation of  the king himself as the victorious Horus. He is shown  holding a robe by his human hand and this robe ends in the nostrils of a head of a prisoner which is a sign of capturing or taking control of, here also we see Horus is perching over six papyrus stems which represent lower Egypt and also a papyrus stem was in the ancient Egyptian language used as a symbol in the language that represents the number of 1,000, it is a symbolic way telling us that the King  had captured around 6,000 prisoners from lower Egypt. At the bottom register two prisoners from Lower Egypt are running or escaping from the king, it shows us the status of the Lower Egyptians during this war



  If you get to the other side of the palette,  here you will see more pictorial scenes simply they tell us  about the foundation of the first dynasty and a celebration of the King for his victory. This side has four registers, at the top register,  it shows two heads of goddess Hathor again flanking the name of the King for protection like the other side of the palette, notice that the name slightly written bigger this time, as the King in this side is celebrating his victory over the lower Egyptians. In the second register we can see the pharaoh walking in a triumphal procession wearing the crown of lower Egypt  ,proceeded by his minister and his servants who carry the flags of victory, in front of them there is a group of ten decapitated prisoners whom their heads are put between their twisted legs. On the third register a very strange scene appeared for the first time in Egyptian history mostly attributed to Mesopotamian influence into the Egyptian culture, here we see two mythological lions with very long necks and two servants with robes trying to pull  their heads away from each other while their necks twist around each other, as if putting an end for the war between upper and Lower Egypt, and in the same time twist their necks around to show as a union between the two lands. In the bottom register another strange scene appeared, as the King is shown in a form of a bull destroying a fortress by his horns and trampling over one of the prisoners from Lower Egypt. which means subduing his enemies under his feet.

  • Narmer palette  was one of the main evidence sources to tell us about the Unification of ancient Egypt, also it tells us about the foundation of the first dynasty, but the strange thing is that the scenes of the two lions and the bull were to appear for the first time in history, we consider them completely unusual to Egyptian art, and for the first time the pharaoh to be shown in a form of a bull !!
  • why a bull? why not a lion or any other animal ??
  • why two lions ?why twins? why identical ?? 

If we link this palette with the astronomy knowledge  in ancient Egypt and with a very closer look at the scenes , then we will come up with the result, that this was actually a time mark symbol  in order to record this great event ! it was not as we thought to be union or strength for the pharaoh, actually it seems that they used the zodiac age for telling us about the time when the king ruled over upper and lower Egypt. It seems as a encoded message, By using computers and sky mapping programs  to go back in time to look at the sky at the time of the first helical rising at the Dog star you'll find out that it was, the end  age of Gemini  and  the beginning of age of Taurus.

Go back to the strange scenes at Narmer palette again, there you will find the answer:

* the two lion are Gemini "the twins" and the bull  is Taurus. 

It was simply a time mark that they left to record the foundation of the first dynasty. Simply they recorded what was there in the sky. But yet  didn't happen in  3100 BC as the most  believe to be the beginning of the first dynasty, most properly took place at 4323 BC ,  the first time of the helical rising of the dog star, the " new year " or in other words  the time that  was rejected before !!! 

Strangely, later on when Egyptologist unravel some artifacts from  sites believed to be back to the first dynasty and when they had them carbon-dated to estimate their age, they found out that they were mostly  back to the period of 4500 to 4000 BC ,but not to 3100 BC the time believed to be  of the first dynasty !. Later as to find a way out of this dilemma, a new period was invented, it was called the pre-dynastic period !!

 but if we accept the new date, 4323 BC it would fall easily back to the first dynasty.

It will also explain for us the giant leap of knowledge that the ancient Egyptian had at the third and fourth dynasty, they needed at least a 1000 years  before they built the pyramids. but with the old date it is only a period of 350 years to have that great advance to knowledge. 

Visit  Room 53 at the Cairo museum which is supposed to have a collection of the pre-dynastic tools that mostly go back to the year 4500 BC and you will see palettes very identical and similar to Narmer palette, you will see one little slate palette that has two horns and a head of a bull depicted on it and around it there is a large number of stars ! simply another recording of the age of Taurus!, have a closer look to the heads of most of these tablets you will find the heads of ramps and bulls, similar to Narmer palette, but funny they all back to 4500 BC and on the ground floor  the Narmer palette is supposed to be back to 3100 BC !!

We did reject the time 4323 BC which was most likely to be the time for the beginning of the dynastic age and the union of ancient  Egypt, because we thought it was an early time, even though all the evidence suggest it to be the right date and what the ancient Egyptians really meant when they told us that these events corresponds with the helical rising of the dog star "the new year ".

If this was likely to be accepted it will change completely our previous knowledge of the ancient  Egyptian history and gave us more understanding of the of secrets of evolution of their culture.