The area to the south of Kom Ombo until the Sisal Mountains in the south of the Nile valley is basically known as Nubia, Nubia is divided into two parts:
Upper Nubia which is part of Sudan now, and lower Nubia which the most southern part of Egypt and ends up in to Wadi Halfa
It was in our modern time that attention was given to this part of Egypt since the construction of the Aswan first dam and then flowed by the Aswan high dam, ever since that time the eyes of the Egyptologists over the world turned to this site.
The etymology of the name of Nubia is uncertain but some researchers believe it is derived from the ancient Egyptian word Nbu, meaning gold, referring to the gold mines for which Nubia was famous. .the ancient Egyptian texts have no reference to this name, but they referred to Nubia generally as Ta-seti, meaning the land of the Bow, a clear reference to the weapon favoured by the Nubians
Since the old kingdom time in the ancient Egyptian history and Nubian is a very important commercial route for African trade, it was rich with gold, fine stones and temper.
At the times of the 6th dynasty ancient Egyptians send expedition to upper Nubia to trade and to bring more of Nubian people who have been employed into the army.
At the time of the middle kingdom the more military expedition were sent to control bigger areas of Nubia and prevent immigrants to come t Egypt expect for trade.
T the time of the new kingdom especially at the 18th dynasty, more of these campaigns were sent to Nubia to secure the northern borders of Egypt. Kind Thutmosis II took over the city of Dongula which is located at the fourth cataract , he added a new principality to the country by appointed new ruler for Kosh, it was also the time where many of the Egyptian monuments where constructed ,
At the end of the new kingdom the province of Nubia was controlled directly by the priests of god Amon. They established cult centre in the city of Nabat for god Amon Ra.
At the seventh century AD the capital of Kosh moved from the city of Nabata to the city of Morei, and the influence of the ancient Egyptian civilization stated to fade gradually
At the Greco-Roman times, the area had once again flourished, and many temples were built or rebuilt at this time
In the roman times the many roman emperors have sent military campaigns to suppress the Belimy tribes who have waged many raids on the southern provinces of Egypt.
When Christianity became the prevailing religion in Egypt many christen monasteries were built down in Nubia and many of the Nubian monuments were converted into churches. Including the temples of Philae and the temples of Dendour ,Tafa, Beit EL Wali, Gerf Housian, and Wadi Es-sebua.
With the spread of Christianity through Nubia pagan believes began to dwindle together with Morai culture, a new age was beginning, in which the Christianity played an important rule, during the eight and ninth, Nubia enjoyed growth and prosperity in both political and cultural sphere, at the rate which had not been enjoyed for a longtime.
Since Nubian church was affiliated at that time to that of Egypt, the Coptic patriarch at Alexandria was acknowledged as its head many churches, monasteries and cathedrals were built often modeled on the basilica type which was common in the Byzantine Empire
At Kasr Ibrim , the ruins of a church probably dating from the second half of the fifth century AD, yielded some Coptic texts on fragments of papyrus and parchment dating fifth to tenth century AD, Qasr Ibrim was the seat of the patriarch of Nubia .
Folk heritage of Nubia:
Because of it s long cultural history, the folk heritage of Nubia is rich, varied and wonderfully original. It is has distinctive features since its the result of there mingled groups that make up the Nubian people, the Kenzi who speak the Matouki language and the Fadija who speak their own language, and the tribe of Aliqat who moved to Nubia from the Sinai on the 18th century.
Nubian fold heritage naturally includes building, furniture m arts, crafts , jewelry and costumes
The Nubian houses are built of stone, clay and sand; the roofs are commonly built of Jareed and grain stalks, the roofs of the well- to –do are arched domes of clay bricks. The flowers are covered with clean sand and house hold utensils for everyday use hang from the ceiling.
The walls of the house especially the façade are decorated with ornaments and paintings of flags, flowers birds and animals. Crockery is often used for wall decorations; a plate usually occupies the centre of the facade.
A Nubian house is usually composed of:
- The entrance hall opens court.
- Domed bedrooms
- The store
- The kitchen and the toilet
Amulets, charms, talismans:
Nubian use amulets, Charms and talismans for good luck and protection form the evil eye; some are painted on walls on form of scorpions, eyes or triangles.
Some are made of breaded beads, shells or hair which hang on he post of the bed, or hang thickly form the ceiling. Baskets made of palm branches and decorated with white shells hanging from the ceiling may have the same function.
Nubian folk dancing is practiced in groups by women and men of all ages. A number of folk dances are performed in seasons of sowing and harvest, in prayer for prosperity and more crops.
Marriage and birth:
In Nubia marriage is usually the responsibility of the parts and also uncles shared the responsibility. Because kinship in Nubia is both patriarchal and matriarchal.
The most common marriage is between cousins and sometimes is obligatory. The pride dowry at that case is much lower than what an outsider would have to pay. The amount varies in different tribes. Presents and money gifts are given to both families to help with expenses which usually very high for wedding.
Since the Nile plays a very important rule in Nubian culture, the couple have to go down to the river an on their wedding night and wash into water to ensure prosperity good health and numerous progeny.
When a male child is born, the birth is celebrated on the seventh day with the slaughter of sheep or more. Recital of Quaran and the boy is given a name. But when the child is a female they only invite close friends and go to the Nile bank where the baby is named.
Nubian art and its symbols:
Nubian art reflects Nubian culture many of it symbols and motives are significant experiencing of folk traditions and supper stations, this can be easily seen in tattoos and wall painting that decorate the façade and entrances halls of many Nubian houses, these symbols recur in the designs of bead works and many kind of baskets, mate ..etc
- Sward in the Nubian culture stands for courage and heroic achievements .
- Stars and crescent are Islamic symbols of good fortune.
- The black cat, crows and owls carry bad omens
- Roses and flowers in general stands for friendship and love
- The apple stands for feminine attraction
- Prayer rug stands for purity and chastity
Saving Nubian monuments:
When the high dame was built, the rising water of lake Nasser threaten to flood the many Nubian monuments, there fore a worldwide reuse campaign at the time attempted to save all Nubian monuments . Thanks to the collaboration of many different nations under the supervision of the Unesco, we were able to save many monuments:
These monuments are:
Temple of Abu Simbel
Temple of Amada
Temple of Deer
Temple of Wadi es-Sebua
Temple of Dekka
Temple of Mahraka
Temple of Kalabsha
Tomb of Aniba