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Lake Burullus Protectorate

Lake Burullus is a protected area stretching over 460 square kilometers and is located towards the east of the Rosetta branch of the river Nile in Egypt. It is the second-largest natural lake in Egypt. 


Towards the north on the seaward border, there are many shallow brackish lagoons and salt marshes, which include Lake Mariout (Buḥayrat Maryūṭ), Lake Idku (Buḥayrat Idkū), Lake Burullus (Buḥayrat Al-Burullus), and Lake Manzala (Buḥayrat Al-Manzilah).

The lake is shallow and has a number of environmental features, including salt swamps and sand plains. The lake is rather elongated and there are around 50 islands scattered over it and has one connection with the sea. The salt concentration is high near the north and decreases towards the south. Salt is produced at the southern part of the lake and commercial fish farming is done. The southern shore is bordered by reed swamps and a large variety of aquatic vegetation is underwater. The lake is home to over 135 species of plants both land and aquatic variety. The lake is an important wetland for waterfowl which are seen here during the winter season. One can also see Wigeon, Anas Penelope, Ferruginous Duck, and Aythya Nyroca here. The protectorate is a place to have a great bird-watching experience as many migrating wild birds can be seen here in the water.



Many migratory birds come to Lake Burullus and are protected under the Ramsar Convention. Ninety-seven percent of the water in the lake is a result of agricultural drainage, while the remaining water comes from rainwater and groundwater. Each year 16% of water in the lake gets evaporated back into the clouds while the remaining 84% flows back into the sea.

Environmental Diversity At Lake Burullus


This protectorate features a number of environments, most significantly the sand plains and salt swamps. Also, there are high sand dunes present. The atmosphere makes it an ideal place for more than 135 species of migratory birds that migrate here to escape the harsh winters.

Why Was Lake Burullus Made Into A Protectorate?

Lake Burullus was declared a protectorate to conserve its biological diversity and also to provide endangered species a natural habitat whose endangerment was a result of human activities. Also, making the lake a protectorate helped in monitoring environmental changes and in encouraging natural or ecotourism in Egypt. Its protectorate status also helps in conducting applied scientific research. The lake helps in protecting natural resources, especially those that are of economic significance.

Wildlife at the Protectorate 

Lake Burullus is home to about 33 species of fish, 23 species of reptiles, 112 species of birds, and 18 species of mammals. Initially, when the lake was made, there were over 52 species of fish. However, their number declined due to the decrease in salt concentration caused by the inflow of agricultural water into the lake.

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