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The Month of Ramadan and Islam

Like Muslims worldwide, Egyptian Muslims fast for the holy month of Ramadan. It is a time when they all come close to each other and respect each other, and it's also a time when Egyptian Muslims stay awake every night. During the month of Ramadan, charity is a priority. It is the time for forgiveness and love. It is a beautiful month. To understand Ramadan, we need first to understand the Islamic faith.

About Islam

ramadan and islam

Islam is the second-largest religion in the world and is the final link in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition of monotheism (belief in one God). Islam has two major religious celebrations during the year. One of them, Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice), takes place during the Hajj, or annual pilgrimage to Makkah (in modern-day Saudi Arabia, also known as Mecca). The other celebration occurs after Ramadan, the Islamic month during which Muslims (believers in Islam) fast daily from dawn to sunset as part of an effort towards self-purification and betterment. This holiday is called Eid al-Fitr (Festival of Breaking the Fast).
Fasting is among the most essential duties for a Muslim during Ramadan. During the ninth of the twelve months, Ramadan occurs in the Islamic lunar calendar. Muslims use a lunar calendar for many of their religious observances. The appearance of a new crescent moon determines a new month in the lunar calendar. Since this occurs every 29 or 30 days, the lunar month is generally 1 or 2 days shorter than a typical month in the Gregorian calendar.
Similarly, the lunar year is about 11 days faster than a specific Gregorian year. As a result, the dates of events in the Islamic lunar year "move forward" about 11 days every year. For example, in 1995, Ramadan began on February 1, and in 1996, it started on January 22.

The Importance Of Ramadan

Ramadan is important for Muslims because it is believed to be the month in which the first verses of the Holy Qur'an (the divine scripture in Islam) were revealed by Allah (God) to the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 C.E). From time to time, Muhammad used to go out from Makkah, where he was born and where he worked as a caravan trader. He went off on his own to reflect and meditate in solitude. Like Abraham, he had never accepted his people's worship of many gods and needed to withdraw to a quiet place to reflect on the One True God. While contemplating these matters in a cave near Makkah one night, he heard a voice call out, telling him to "recite!" Muhammad protested that he was unable to read and write. The voice insisted again, and then a third time, and Muhammad found himself reciting the first verses of the Qur'an:
"Read, in the name of the Lord, Who created man, out of a clot (embryo). Proclaim! and the Lord is Most Bountiful, He Who taught man that which he knew not. Nay, But name both transgress all bounds, In that, he looketh himself as self-sufficient. Verily, to thy Lord of the Return (of all)." (Ch.96: 1-8)
The voice was that of the Angel Gabriel, and he confirmed that Muhammad was selected for a meaningful and challenging mission; he was to call his people back to monotheism and righteousness by imparting God's final message to the world. Muslims consider the Qur'an God's speech recorded in Arabic and transmitted to humanity through Muhammad, the last of the prophets. This tradition of God-chosen prophets, or messengers, is believed to include such figures as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus. Muslims believe that various verses and chapters of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad over twenty-three years through the angel Gabriel's intercession. The Qur'an is comprised of 114 chapters of varying length, with titles such as "Abraham," "The Pilgrimage," "Mary," and "Repentance." 
During Ramadan, Muslims fast every day from dawn to sunset. This means not consuming food and drink, including water, during daylight hours. For married adults, it also includes refraining from marital relations during the hours of fasting (i.e., the daylight hours). In the Arabic language, fasting is known as sawm. Muslims arise early during Ramadan to have a pre-dawn breakfast meal called suhoor. They have the iftar meal, which usually includes dates, fresh fruits, appetizers, beverages, and dinner, completing the daily fast. Later in the evening, Muslims attend special nightly tarawih prayers at their local masjid (mosque). Each night during Ramadan, approximately 1/30th of the Qur'an is recited in the tarawih prayers so that the entire scripture is repeated during the 29 or 30 days of the month.

Why Muslims Fast

Fasting Has Several Benefits

1. It helps one feel compassion for those less fortunate and underprivileged. Each day during Ramadan, Muslims feel a greater appreciation for what they have for the rest of the year due to hunger and thirst.
2. It allows one to build self-control and willpower, which can be beneficial in dealing with temptations and peer pressure. Through fasting, Muslims learn to control their natural urges, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desire. They thus can better resist temptations for unnecessary things, such as drugs or other unhealthy or harmful substances and behaviors. 
3. It offers a time for Muslims to "purify" their bodies as well as their souls by developing a greater sense of humility, spirituality, and community. Ramadan is a very spiritual time for Muslims, and often, they invite each other to one another's homes to break the fast and pray together. A greater sense of generosity and forgiveness is also characteristic of this time. 
As with other duties in Islam, fasting becomes obligatory (i.e., one becomes accountable) after puberty.

Eid El-Fitr

After the end of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate a very festive and joyous holiday called Eid al-Fitr
, which means the Festival of Breaking the Fast. On the day of Eid, Muslims attend special congregational prayers in the morning, wearing their best clothes and perfumes. After completing prayers and a particular sermon, Muslims greet and hug one another, saying "Eid Mubarak," which means "Holiday Blessings." Later, Muslim families visit each other's homes and have special meals together. Children are often rewarded with gifts, money, sweets, hats, and other decorations that mark the happy occasion. 

Islam Vocab List

Ramadan - The 9th month of the Islamic lunar calendar, during which Muslims fast from dawn to sunset. 
Sawm - an Arabic word that means "fasting". 
Suhoor - The pre-dawn breakfast meal eaten before beginning the daily fast.
Iftar - The evening meal after sunset to break the daily fast.
Tarawih: Special prayers are offered nightly during Ramadan, in which approximately 1/30th of the Qur'an is recited each night.
Eid al-Fitr is a festival at the end of Ramadan, on the first day of the next month, Shawal, to celebrate completing the month of fasting. 

Key Figures In Islam

Muhammad — A prophet and righteous person, believed by Muslims to be the final messenger of God, whose predecessors are believed to include prophets Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus, among others. 
Gabriel — Muslims believe that among God's many creations are Angels. Gabriel is believed to be one of the most essential Angels as he was responsible for transmitting God's divine revelations to all human prophets, ending with Muhammad.
Key Places In Islam
Arafat - A place where pilgrims travel as part of the Hajj. Pilgrims offer prayers there throughout the day.
Makkah (Mecca) - The sacred city of Muslims in modern-day Saudi Arabia, where the Ka'bah is located.
Mina - A place where pilgrims camp, located on the outskirts of Makkah.
Muzdalifa - A place where pilgrims stay overnight and pray during the Hajj.
Safa and Marwah - Two hills near the Ka'bah.

Miscellaneous Terms

Allah — The Arabic name for God. 
"Eid Mubarak" — A greeting Muslims use during the Eid holidays. It means "Holiday Blessings!" 
Makkah (Mecca)— The sacred city of Muslims in modern-day Saudi Arabia, where the Ka'bah (house of worship built by Abraham) is located. 
Masjid — Muslim house of worship (also known as "mosque.")
Monotheism — Belief in One God.
Polytheism — Belief in many Gods.
Qur'an (Koran) — The holy book of Muslims, containing God's revelation to Muhammad

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