Mentuhotep II was a member of the royal family of Egypt who reunited Egypt at the end of the First Intermediate period. He was also the founder of the Middle Kingdom. During Mentuhotep II's reign, he built an innovative mortuary that included a terraced temple having porticoes that were set against the desert cliffs at Western Thebes. The decorations included scenes that were extravagantly carved in brilliant colors. In a detailed relief, the pharaoh was shown wearing a white crown of Upper Egypt, a broad collar decorated with blue and green beads, and a false beard attached through a strap to the jawline. The name Mentuhotep was found in an oval-shaped cartouche, while his Horus name was Semataway which means "Unifier Of The Two Lands."
Mentuhotep II is considered to be one of the greatest kings Egypt has ever seen, and this was discovered through his mortuary temple, which had continued to be used for paying home to him up until the 19th dynasty, which is around 700 years after his death. The temple was eventually destroyed by an earthquake and was partially buried under the cliffs through debris.
About Mentuhotep II's Family
Mentuhotep II is said to have been the son of Intef III and Iah. A relief found at the Wadi near Gebel el Silsila shows a colossal figure of the king, and the three smaller figures are believed to be of his mother. Another masonry block depicts Mentuhotep II towering over three kings.
Montuhotep worked so diligently to enhance his reputation with his contemporaries with self-deification that some Egyptologists believe he may not have been a legitimate heir to the throne, although this might also be explained by his efforts to reunite Egypt.
Mentuhotep II's Territory
The territory of Mentuhotep II extended from the First Cataract to Asyut. He was successful in uniting Upper and Lower Egypt, and his reign is believed to have been quiet and unassuming until around the fourteenth year of his rule. That changed everything and is described as the year of the crime of Thinis. It seems that Khety, during this time, regained control of Abydos, and Mnetuhotep II responded to this by starting an offensive which led to his controlling Abydos, Asyut, and Heracleopolis.
Mentuhotep II is known to have constructed many temples and shrines throughout Egypt. Most of his building work was in Upper Egypt. He was very fond of Montu and was thus involved in building temples in honor of Armant, Tod, and Medamud. The greatest monument built by him was a mortuary temple near the west bank of Thebes. The tomb constructed by him was beautiful, and he even permitted his senior officials to construct their tombs close to his.
The throne name of Mentuhotep II was Nebhetepre which means "the Lord Ra is Pleased."