The Pyramid of Amenmehat
This pyramid was built by Amenmehat I , who changed the governing system of Egypt to be more centralized and switched the capital of Egypt from Thebes, where his ancestors had ruled in the South. Instead, he established a new capital city in the north to be midway between Upper Egypt in the South and Lower Egypt in the north. Amenmehat's pyramid is halfway between Dahshur and Meidum and about 100 kilometers south of Cairo.
All the rulers of Egypt who belonged to the 12th dynasty constructed pyramids and funerary structures near the Oasis of El Fayoum, most likely the new capital of Amenmehat, which was also located near that region. That is why Amenmehat constructed his so-called pyramid near a village titled El Lisht, situated south of the Dahshur Pyramids complex built mainly by King Senefru, the father of King Cheops, who made the Grand Pyramid in Giza,
The Pyramid of El Lisht is located near the Pyramid of Medium, the first pyramid of King Senefru that turned out to be a failed attempt at the end after the pyramid collapsed during the building process. Most probably, the new Capital of Amenmehat was near his pyramid because the kings of ancient Egypt always wanted to construct their funerary complexes near their cities to enable the people to view their greatness reflected in their constructions.
It seems that Amenmehat wanted to imitate the great kings of the Old Kingdom, nicknamed the builders of the pyramids by many historians, and this was why he established his capital near theirs in Memphis. He constructed his pyramid in the same style and architecture.
However, unfortunately, due to the lack of skillful builders and maybe the absence of resources, the Pyramid of Amenmehat I in El Lisht ended up looking more like the poorly shaped pyramids constructed by the Pharaohs of the 6th dynasty.
The Construction and the Design of the Pyramid of Amenmehat I In El Lisht
At the time when more excellent kings like Cheops and his father Senefru formed the base of their pyramids with vast blocks of stones to preserve their massive structures, the bottom of the pyramid of Amenmehat I in El Lisht was combined from many substances that included smaller blocks of gravel, sand, mud, and debris.
Moreover, some historians assert that Amenmehat I brought most of the substances he used to construct his pyramid from other funerary complexes built by the Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom as he took some of the falling stones of the Pyramids of Cheops and Khafre, and this was why his pyramid never survived as a great relic like the other pyramids.
It was rather weird that a king would direct his attention to the north to search for rocks and limestone, as it was well-known in ancient Egypt that these substances were brought from quarries in the south. Scholars have debated why Amenmehat took some meaning for constructing his pyramid from the necropolis of Giza. Some of them noted that maybe taking some stones from the older pyramids would make Amenmehat more legitimate to become Egypt's king and show off his power to his people.
The Plan of the Pyramid of El Lisht
The internal design of the pyramid of Amenmehat is rather plain, with the entrance inside the pyramid being located in the northern section of the structure and on the ground level, the same as other pyramids built during the Old Kingdom.
Inside the pyramid is a passageway leading downwards towards the center of the structure, which was situated below the ground level in a brilliant idea initiated by the architect who planned the pyramid. The same as all the kings who constructed pyramids in ancient Egypt, Amenmehat tried his best to prevent thieves from stealing the valuable belongings that he put inside the pyramid, and this was why he put vast blocks of stone at the end of this passageway to deceive thieves and stop them from entering the pyramid and finding its treasures.
A perpendicular tunnel slides down from the chamber in the middle of the pyramid towards the royal burial chamber of Amenmehat I, located deep inside the ground, even below the groundwater level, which has stopped thieves from entering the burial chamber for a very long period. Still, nothing was discovered when the pyramid was excavated in modern times.
Amenmehat, just like the kings of the Old Kingdom, had constructed a mortuary temple near his pyramid in El Lisht, and it was located under his pyramid.
Amenmehat I'm Mortuary Temple
It was recorded in some historian texts that the mortuary temple of Amenmehat I, located near the village of El Lisht, was situated to the East of the pyramid, and two passageways linked it to the valley temple, in the same design as the pyramids constructed beforehand. Surrounding the complex were two massive walls; the outer one was mainly built of mud, while the inner one protected the pyramid, and the mortuary temple was more robust and was constructed using limestone to defend the pyramid against thieves.
Located near the pyramid, enclosed by the outer wall, there are many "Mastaba" tombs, constructed only of one layer of mud bricks, which belonged to many royal family members like the mother of Amenmehat, some of his wives, and some of his daughters.
The Pyramid of Senosurt I in El Lisht
When Senosurt I, the son of Amenmehat, became the king of Egypt in 1965 B.C., he followed in his father's footsteps in many aspects as he kept the capital of Egypt in the north and constructed his pyramid near that of his father.
The base of the pyramid of Senosurt I was around 100 meters in width with a height estimated to be about 60 meters, and this was why the pyramid was said to be the largest to be constructed in Egypt since the reign of the 4th dynasty (the one that had great pyramid builders like Senefru and Cheops, whose ruling period ended in around the middle of the 25th century B.C.)
Although the Pyramid of Senosurt I seemed to be a great structure when it was first built at the beginning of the 20th century B.C., nothing remains of this pyramid today except a large pile of sand and ruins. At the same time, the base still has its original limestone.
The inner structure of the pyramid of Senosurt I was all constructed with solid limestone, and maybe this was why it is the only item of the pyramid that remained in good shape until today while the rest of the pyramid fell over long periods passing by.
The walls of the inner chambers of the pyramid were constructed with blocks of stones that were larger in the base, smaller towards the top, and covered with strong white limestone.
The Design and the Plan of the Pyramid of Senosurt I
In the same manner, as the pyramid of his father and many of the pyramids of former kings of ancient Egypt, the entrance to the Pyramid of Senosurt I was constructed in the northern section of the pyramid and on the ground level.
It seems like Senosurt I followed his father even in the internal plan of his pyramid, as he had a straightforward method for his pyramid in El Lisht. It consisted of a passageway descending below the pyramid and leading to the burial chamber at the very end, located in the pyramid's center. A distinctive feature of the Pyramid of Senosurt I burial chamber in El Lisht is that the room's ceiling was erected in the shape of a pyramid. The burial chamber was constructed extremely deep into the ground to prevent thieves from entering it.
The Mortuary Temples of Senosurt I
Senosurt I had been influenced mainly by the kings of the 6th dynasty, and he copied the design and plan of their mortuary temples that were located east of the pyramid. It was constructed in the typical style. However, nothing remains of it today.
The same as the structure of his father, Amenmehat I, the mortuary complex of Senosurt I had two large walls surrounding his complex. The inner walls surrounded the pyramid only, while the outer wall enclosed the rest of the complex.
Situated near the mortuary complex of Senosurt I, several queens' pyramids were constructed in different periods of time after the building of the pyramid itself, but none of them remained until today.
These Queens' Pyramids were built in the ruling periods of Amenmehat I and Senosurt I, and they all had small bases and relatively small burial chambers with extensive decorations and fantastic wall paintings.