Morocco is located in the northwest corner of Africa and is bordered by the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Morocco borders the North Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the western Mediterranean Sea to the north, and has borders with Algeria and disputed Western Sahara. Morocco is about the same size as California
The people are not supplied with enough water because the high Atlas Mountains separate the mild coastline from the harsh Sahara. Rainfall is unpredictable and not sufficient to supply all the water needed.
Morocco's terrain is mostly mountainous. The Atlas Mountains run from the country's central north to its southwest shore. They stretch about 1,350 kilometers (840 miles) and serve as the country's backbone. To the north of the Atlas Mountains, the Rif Mountains make up part of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Andalusia, Spain. The huge range extends from Tangier to Nador, a distance of about 250 kilometers (160 miles).
The Moroccan Plateau stretches from Tangier to Lagouira, a length of 2,310 kilometers (1,440 miles), and Saiss Plains near Fes and Tansift-Alhaouz near Marrakech, which extends inward to Saiss Plains near Fes and Tansift-Alhaouz near Marrakech. These fertile agricultural areas are supported and are responsible for 15% of the local economy.
Sahara Desert lies near the country's extreme southeast, creating arid environments. Figuig and Zagora are two oasis areas where palms are common.
In terms of size, Morocco is the 58th largest country in Africa. Nearly two-thirds of the population (64%) live in cities. Casablanca alone accounts for one-seventh of the population.
The country's climate can be split into two parts: the north and the south. The arid, sparsely populated south is the country's southern region, while the more temperate, more densely populated north comprises 95% of the population. The country's heavily mountainous northwest regions have a Mediterranean climate, but continental and alpine influences are evident because of the country's location. The Atlantic coastline experiences an oceanic influence in addition to an alpine one. In the northeast, the central-south, and the southwest, there are semi-arid regions.
The Mediterranean climate supports a wide variety of indigenous Mediterranean plants. The summers are pleasantly hot, and the winters are moderately cold, all year round. As you go up the Rif Mountains, the climate becomes more continental, with colder winters and hotter summers. At elevations over 1,000 meters (3,300 ft), the climate is alpine, with pleasant summers and cold winters. Rainfall is much higher on the west side than it is on the east side, averaging between 600 and 1,500 mm (24 and 59 in) annually and 300 and 700 mm (12 and 28 in) annually, respectively. It is a snowy region.
The Mediterranean climate is evident along the Atlantic coast, and the impact of the sea is different from region to region. In Asilah to Essaouira, the climate is generally the Mediterranean, except in the summer, when it is warm to moderately hot. In the colder Atlas Mountain range, winters are colder, and summer temperatures are higher. At elevations above 1,000 meters (3,300 ft), the climate is alpine, with cold winters and hot summers. Annual precipitation ranges from 500 to 1,800 mm (20 to 71 in) on the north, but drops by about 100 to 200 mm (3.9 to 7.9 in) as you move south. In addition to large amounts of snow, there are two ski stations, one in the middle Atlas of Mischliffen and the other in the High Atlas Oukaïmeden.
The southern areas of the northwest are semi-arid. Annual rainfall is 250 to 350 millimeters (9.8 to 13.8 in), and it is less. Because of the lower latitudes where they are located, the higher averages are not to be disregarded. Temperature ranges don't change as much as they do in the upper provinces, but a slight increase is evident. Because of the lower rainfall, Agadir and Marrakesh are typical examples. The Western Sahara region is hot, but the coast is cooler.
Human habitation in Morocco has been taking place since the Lower Paleolithic period when Jebel Irhoud was inhabited. The Mauretania and other ancient Berber kingdoms were part of the Iberomaurusian culture, which lasted from the establishment of Mauretania to the establishment of the Moroccan state by the Idrisid dynasty. Islamic dynasties, starting with the Idrisids and extending through the colonial and independence eras, are chronologically linked to present-day Morocco.
Archaeological evidence indicates that hominids lived on the Moroccan coast at least 400,000 years ago. The Phoenicians controlled the Moroccan coast from the 8th to 6th centuries BCE, beginning Morocco's recorded history. The Carthaginians extended their control over the coastal regions in the 5th century BCE. The hinterland was ruled by indigenous monarchs for two millennia before the Carthaginian invasion in the late 3rd century BCE. The Roman Empire controlled the region from 40 CE to the mid-5th century AD, when it was overrun by Vandals. By the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire reestablished control.
Excavation evidence has revealed that hominids lived in the area at least 400,000 years ago. The Phoenicians colonized the Moroccan coast between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, beginning Morocco's recorded history. The indigenous Berbers inhabited the region for two thousand years before the Phoenicians' arrival. Carthage expanded its control over the coastal areas in the 5th century BCE. The hinterland was governed by local monarchs until the late 3rd century BCE, at which time the Byzantines controlled it. The Roman Empire controlled the region from 40 CE until the mid-5th century AD when Vandals seized it. By the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire recaptured it.